I just want to know why 'women' in 'women lawyers and judges' can only modify lawyers while, 'lawyers and judges of women' can mean women lawyers and women judges.
Is there a rule here, like, the adj. can only modify the nearest word, but prep phrase can modify the whole phrase joined by 'and'?
red hat and shirts --- only hat is known to be red
hat and shirts of red --- means they both are red
Yes, your examples are correct.
In example 1, red (used as adjective) modify only hat and we don't know the color of shirts
in example 2, hat and shirts of red, means both are red.
I think example 2 can also be written as - hats of red and shirts of red. But that would sound awkward. Am I right?