The launch of the Integrated Reasoning (IR) section is getting close! The last administration of the old version of the GMAT will be on 2 June; the next-generation GMAT will launch on 5 June. It’s not too late to study for the old version, but it’s also not too early to start thinking about studying for the next-gen test, including IR.

So let’s talk about one of the four IR question categories: Graphics Interpretation. IR in general is a mix of quant and logical reasoning, so expect to bring your critical reasoning and reading comp skills into play on this section.

Before we dive in, just a note: a new Official Guide (13th edition!) was just published; it has an IR section along with an additional IR resource online (to which you get access if you buy the book). I would guess that most test prep companies will also be releasing their IR study materials next month (we certainly are!).

### Try the problem

Let’s try out the question: here it is. Just in case that link changes, you can also click on this link to go to the next-gen GMAT website, and then, about halfway down the page, click on the “Graphics Interpretation” link. We’re going to try the 2nd of the 4 questions.

Note: when you are done, do NOT click the “next” button. Just leave it up on the screen and come back here.

Set your timer for 1.5 minutes and go! (Note: we have an average of 2 minutes and 30 seconds for each IR question in the section, but some question types are more complicated than others. I recommend trying this one for 1.5 to 2 minutes initially, as it is shorter than some of the other question types. Just note that, as you study, you’re going to have to determine your strengths and weaknesses so you can learn to balance your time appropriately.)

### That graph is scary.

Yes, it is. I’m with you. Don’t look at the graph first. Read the text below it; that will help orient you to what the graph contains.

The first sentence tells us we have three columns (we can see that ourselves) with a bunch of geologic info. I found the second sentence really confusing and had to read it twice; the “but otherwise” language confused me because all three columns have timeframes to the left, so why is there contrast language there?

I did eventually understand what they were talking about but only after I was done with the problem and read it yet again. Here’s the thing: I still wasn’t sure I fully understood it when I was doing the problem. I just said to myself (after the second reading), okay, each one has its own timeframes. And that’s good enough for now.
The third sentence (and actually the second sentence as well, but I didn’t get this when I was doing the problem) indicates that the 2nd and 3rd ones are subsets of the column to its left and I can see what the subset is based on the gray shading and dotted lines.

Okay, next I did look up at the graph, but not for very long. What am I going to do, memorize all the numbers and names? : ) No way. Moving on to the first question.

### The Questions

“The Miocene epoch spans closest to _______ of the era of which it is a part.”

The “Miocene epoch” – okay, let’s go find that in the graph. Only the third column has a header labeled “epoch,” so look there. Okay, found it… now what does the question say? The Miocene is part of an era. Which one? Oh, I see – the gray shading and dotted lines indicate the Cenozoic era in the middle column.

And I suddenly realize that I’m not quite sure what kind of thing is supposed to go in that blank. I should have looked at the answer choice options. There are three: 3%, 25%, and 85%.

“The Miocene epoch spans closest to (3% / 25% / 85%) of the era of which it is a part.”

This is making a lot more sense now. The Miocene was what percentage of the Cenozoic? The Cenozoic is that whole third column, so it was about 65 million years. The Miocene isn’t 85% – that’d be way more than half – and it isn’t 3% because that’d be almost nothing. So it must be 25%. Now I’m really glad I looked at the answers – I was able to avoid actual calculations!

(If you do want to check the calculation, estimate the length of time for the Miocene. That was about 5 million to about 23 million, or about 18 million years. 18 million / 65 million = 28%, roughly.)

Here’s the second question:

According to the diagram the beginning of the _____________ marks the onset of a new eon, era, and period in geological history.

I learned from the last one: I’m going to look at the answer choices right away. They are: Cambrian period, Triassic period, Pliocene epoch, and Precambrian eon.

Hmm. One of the (many) timeframes shown on the charts is the beginning of three new division groupings: an eon, an era, and a period. Examine the graph. Only the second one shows eon, era, and period together, so let’s start there. The horizontal lines indicate the divisions between different eons, eras, and so on. Are there any where the horizontal lines go all the way across?

Yes! Towards the bottom, we have one horizontal line going all the way across, marking the Phanerozoic eon, the Paleozoic era, and the Cambrian period. Are any of those options in the answers? Yes, the Cambrian period.

The answer to the first question is 25%. The answer to the second question is the Cambrian period.

### Key Takeaways for Graphics Interpretation questions:

(1) The Graphics Interpretation questions will always contain… a graph! You may see more traditional graphs, such as pie or bar charts, but you may also see more unusual graphs like the one we had in this problem. As a general rule, read the introductory text before examining the graph.

(2) Don’t try to understand or learn everything about the graph. Know how it works and what kind of information it gives, but that’s it. You don’t need to take down a bunch of notes about the details of the graph, though there may be times that you’ll want to jot down a note about how the graph works.

(3) The Graphics Interpretation questions can be less dense, and therefore faster to answer, than some of the other question types (such as Multi-Source Reasoning). You’ll probably spend a bit less time, on average, on these in order to spend more time on some of the more dense questions.

* All quotes copyright and courtesy of the Graduate Management Admissions Council. Usage of this material does not imply endorsement by GMAC.

#### Stacey Koprince

Stacey Koprince is an Instructor and Trainer as well as the Director of Online Community for Manhattan Prep. She’s also a management consultant who specializes in corporate strategy. She has been teaching various standardized tests for more than fifteen years and her entire teaching philosophy can be summed up in five words: teaching students how to think.

### 16 responses to The Next-Gen GMAT: Graphics Interpretation

1. Hi Stacey, great article.

I was wondering if you could possible help me out with part two of question 3.

“The percent change in the mass from age 12 to age 16 is approximately (equal to, 2 times, or 3 times) the percent change in the mass from age 16 to 20. I’ve been looking at it for a while now and whenever I keep trying to solve it – using different ways – i keep winding up with the wrong answer.

http://www.mba.com/the-gmat/nex-gen/samples/Sample-701?next=yes

Thanks for the help if you can!

• I tried to answer these by eyeballing it and got it wrong repeatedly as well. However, when I looked more closely, I see why the answer provided is correct.

So, to solve the problem we need two things:
1) the percent change from age 12 to 16 and
2) the percent change from age 16 to 20.

The formula for percent change is (new value – old value) / (old value) x 100%. Plugging in we get the following.

1) Mass at age 12 looks to be slightly under 1,000, so I called it 900. Mass at 16 appears to be about 3,000. (3,000 – 900) / (900) x 100% = (2100 / 900) x 100% = 21/9 x 100%. I estimated here recognizing that if the denominator was a 10, the value would be 2.1. But since it’s a smaller number, I adjusted it up to 2.2 giving me 2.2 x 100% = 220%.

2) Mass at 12 is 3,000. Mass at 20 is a little over 5,000, but I’ll call it 5,000 to make the number easy. (5,000 – 3,000) / (3,000) x 100% = (2,000 / 3,000) x 100% = 2/3 x 100% = 66%.

Now we take the two together. 220% is a little more than 3-times 66%.

So the answer seems to be 3-times.

Hope that helps.

• Can anyone explain how to find the arithmetic mean , for this question ?

Is it the 3 points and the end point at 30 ?

• Hi, I’m guessing something strange happened with your comment because, first of all, it’s showing up in the middle of older comments and, second of all, your question doesn’t seem to fit the problem posted in this article. There isn’t anything for which we would calculate the mean, or average. Try posting again in the article where you did want to post and, if you have problems again, please contact studentservices@manhattangmat.com – thanks! (Or, if you did want to post here, please clarify what you’re trying to calculate the mean for.)

2. Hi Stacey,

I will highly appreciate if you can help me understand the OA. (I am making the words in CAPS, which led me to select different choice)

“According to the diagram the BEGINNING of the _____________ marks the ONSET of a NEW eon, era, and period in geological history.”

If you look at the OA i.e. Cambrian period, beginning of it is still in the old Eon. If there were an answer choice of Vendian Period (lies below cambrian), that would be correct as per the question statement.

3. stacey – please answer the question of dc, as everyone else has it.

the question is the BEGINNING of X

the beginning of the cambrian era is in the middle of an eon and era, the END of the cambrian era marks the onset of a new eon, era, and period

4. Hi, all – seems that there has been some technical issue. I did come in and answer a while ago; I don’t know where my post went! Sorry about that!

Joseph, thanks for posting your own solution. In general, everyone, if you have a question about a different problem than the one posted in the article, please go onto our forums and post in the IR section to get help from an instructor (make sure to follow forum guidelines when doing so). It’s just too hard to discuss a problem in the comments section when we haven’t even posted the problem, not to mention confusing to discuss two different problems in the same comment stream.

dc and aakash, be very careful how you read the data. The timeframe is posted in terms of millions of years AGO – millions of years before the present time. Similar to something like: 5 years ago, I lived in California, and 3 years ago I moved to Montreal. Which happened first / longer ago? The one with the larger number. :)

So something that is listed at 500 is longer ago / earlier in time than something listed at 400. Some era might have started 500 million years AGO and ended 400 million years ago. That’s a hugely tricky and important detail when trying to solve this problem!

The Cambrian period began approximately 550 million years AGO and ended approximately 530 million years ago.

5. Stacey,
Thanks for clarifying this! I got a rude shock when I dint pick up this simple yet fundamental detail when i did the question first time- just like aakash & dc! Now it makes perfect sense.

great article!

Thanks again.

• GMATcheetah, it is tricky, isn’t it? I picture the writer sitting at his/her desk with a little evil grin on his/her face… :)

6. hi stacey !
my name is stephane yade .I am from cote d’ivoire west africa .When i took the gmat test for the very first time ,i performed the a very bad score of 200. i was discouraged for ,not, being able one day to get in my dream business school.So i was searching for a mean to improve and prcatice tyen i tumbled over your Manhattan gmat blog. Letme; tell you you can’t imagine how your blog and expalanations are so rich and help full.I did registered in gmtaprep.Now i am revewing my basic maths skills. I will gather money to pay the full gmat package. i think this will help me to be ready and retake the gmat for a better score (550) hoping to hear from you
reagrds !

• Hi, Stephane, thanks for your note. I’m glad that our articles and materials are helping you. Good luck with your studies – and if you’d like to get any strategy advice or discuss problems with us, please do check out our forums!

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